College Board: Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives Unit Outline


I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives

A. Geography as a field of inquiry
B. Evolution of key geographical concepts and models associated with notable geographers
C. Key concepts underlying the geographical perspective: location, space, place, scale, pattern,regionalization, and globalization
D. Key geographical skills
  1. How to use and think about maps and spatial data
  2. How to understand and interpret the implications of associations among phenomena in places
  3. How to recognize and interpret at different scales the relationships among patterns and processes
  4. How to define regions and evaluate the regionalization process
  5. How to characterize and analyze changing interconnections among places

E. New geographic technologies, such as GIS and GPS
F. Sources of geographical ideas and data: the field, census data


Geo Greeting


To Vocabulary Links,Citations,and Games

To Important Projections

To Map Types


College Board Outline:

1. Geography as a field of Inquiry

  • Geography is an exiciting field of investigation that focuses on understanding the world and its patterns.

  • Two types of geography are Physical and Human.

  • Human Geography is primarily concerned with analyzing the structures,processes,and locations of the earth's human creations and their interactions.



2. Key Geographical Concepts,Models, & Geographers


Key Geographic Concepts and Models associated with Notable Geographers

THEORIST
THEORY
EXPLANATION

Johann Heinrich von Thünen
Agricultural Theory of Concentric Circles
  1. City center / market
  2. Market gardening
  3. Forest
  4. Grains
  5. Ranching
external image image002.jpg


Walter Christaller
Central Place Theory
Hexagon shape (compromise of square/circle) – trade areas Urban hierarchy, range, threshold,
low order good, high order good Spatial distributions of hamlets, villages, towns and cities
external image centralplace.gif

Ernest Burgess
Concentric Zone
  1. CBD
  2. Transition-industry/poor housing
  3. Stable working class
  4. Middle class
  5. Commuter zone - suburbs
external image slide0216_image361.gif


Immanuel Wallerstein
Core-Periphery (World Systems Analysis)
Core – MDCs-use the resources of the periphery (N. America, Europe, Japan and Australia)
Periphery- LDCs-(Africa, Latin America, most of Asia)
(recent add) semi-periphery- places where core and periphery processes are both occurring
(China, India and the 4 Asian Tigers: Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore)

Warren Thompson
Demographic Transition Model
Stage 1-very high CDR and CBR
Stage 2-rapid decline CDR; very high CBR
Stage 3-rapid declining CDR; declining CBR
Stage 4-very low CDR/CBR
external image g427.gif

Elsworth Huntington
Environmental Determinism
Climate and terrain were a major determinant of civilization
Temperate climate of Europe lead to greater human efficiency and better standards of living

Richard Hartshorne
centripetal / centrifugal
centripetal- forces that unify centrifugal- forces that divide
Events can be both… Such as a war which can unite as well as divide people

W.W. Rostow
Modernization Model(5 stages of development)
1.Traditional society-no modern industrial development, agrarian, % of wealth in “nonproductive” activities (i.e. military and religion)
2.Preconditions for takeoff- elite group initiates the economic activities, investment in technology and infrastructure stimulating an increase in productivity
3.Takeoff- rapid growth in limited economic activities (i.e. textiles), majority of the economy dominated by traditional practices
4.Drive to maturity- modern technologies diffuse to a wide variety of industries resulting in rapid growth, labor more skilled and specialized
5.Age of mass consumption- consumer goods become focus of economy
external image development_fig3.jpg

Chauncey Harris /E.L. Ullman
Multiple Nuclei Model
A city consists of a collection of individual nodes, or centers, around which different types of people and activities cluster
1- Central Business District (CBD)
2- Wholesale, Light Manufacturing
3- Low-class Residential
4- Medium-Class Residential
5- High-class Residential
6- Heavy Manufacturing
7- Outlying Business District
8- Residential Suburb
9- Industrial Suburb
external image 400px-Ulman2.png

  • Distribution of agricultural activities around the city depends on bulk and perishability of products.
    Economic model, transportation costs significant

    external image vt.gif
    (Pre-Central Place Theory)

    Click here for larger version




Key Geographic Concepts and Models associated with Notable Geographers


THEORIST
THEORY
EXPLANATION

Halford Mackinder
Heartland Theory
Geopolitical thought- explains why NATO and the WARSAW pact existed – control of Eastern Europe
1) Who rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland
2) Who rules the Heartland commands the world island
3) Who rules the world island commands the world

E. G. Ravenstein
Laws of Migration
Reasons why migrants move: economic, cultural, environmental push and pull factors
Distance they typically move: internal (interregional & intraregional), international (voluntary/forced)
Migrant characteristics: most likely-single, males

Alfred Weber
Least Cost Theory
Location of manufacturing
Triangular principle: 2 points = raw material locations top point = market
Dot = Industrial plant would be located within the triangle dependent on bulk/weight of finished
product, raw materials and corresponding transportation costs
WEIGHT-GAINING: finished goods weigh MORE than raw materials; factory closer to market
WEIGHT-REDUCING: finished goods weigh LESS than raw materials; factory farther from market

Vidal De La Blache
Possibilism
Human Environment Interaction - Humans have a wide range of potential actions within an environment, they respond based on their value systems, attitudes and cultural attributes.
Culture determines the people’s response to the environment

Mark Jefferson
Primate Cities / Rank Size Rule
PRIMATE CITY - A country's leading city is always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling (culture). The primate city is commonly at least twice as large as
the next largest city and more than twice as significant. -1939 (New York, London, Paris)
RANK SIZE RULE - idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proptional to its rank in the hierarchy.

Nicholas Spykman
Rimland Theory
Eurasian rim not the Heartland is/was the key to global power. Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia; who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world

Homer Hoyt
Sector Model
1- Central Business District
2- Transportation and industry
3- Low-class residential
4- Middle-class residential
5- High-class residential
external image 400px-Hoyt_model.svg.png




3. Concepts associated with the Geographical Perspective

Location

  • Location is typically defined as being the first out of the five themes of geography, and the geographical situation of people and things.

  • Different types of location such as: Absolute, Relative and how geographers use them.

  • Location helps to establish the context within which events and processes are situated.

Space

  • Space was defined by Doreen Massey and Pat Jess as "social relations stretched out"

  • It is vital to know the difference between space and place.


Place

  • Place is defined as being the fourth out the five themes of geography, and is the uniqueness of a location.

  • All places on Earth have unique human and physical characteristics.

Scale

  • Scale is typically defined as being the ratio between the size of an area on a map and he actual size of that same area on the earth's surface

  • Scale is about size, either relative or absolute, and involves a fundamental set of issues in geography.

Pattern
  • Pattern is typically defined as being the design of spatial distribution.

  • By looking at a map of how something is distributed across space, a geographer can raise questions about how arrangement came about, what processes create and sustain the particular pattern of the distribution, and what the relationships exist between different places and things.

Regionalization

  • The tendency to form regions or the process of doing so.

Globalization

  • Globalization is typically defined as being the expansion of economic,political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact.



These concepts are basic to students’ understanding of spatial interaction and spatial behavior,

the dynamics of human population growth and movement, patterns of culture, economic activities,

political organization of space, and human settlement patterns, particularly urbanization.


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4. Geographical Skills

  • How to use and think about maps and spatial data

  • How to understand and interpret the implications of associations among phenomena in places

  • How to recognize and interpret at different scales the relationships among patterns and processes

  • How to define regions and evaluate the regionalization process

  • How to characterize and analyze changing interconnections among place



http://www.rgs.org/OurWork/CharteredGeographer/Geogrpahical+Skills+and+Knowledge.htm

5. Geographic Technologies


  • Geographers use many different Geographic technologies, here are just a few.


  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)- A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded,stored,retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.


  • Remote Sensing is typically describe as a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.i. Satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study.


  • Global Positioning System (GPS)- Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features

6. Sources

College Board

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